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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 Mar 4;497(2):591-596. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.02.109. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

A set of 14 DIP-SNP markers to detect unbalanced DNA mixtures.

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The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanxi Medicine University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China.
School of Forensic Medicine, Shanxi Medicine University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China.
School of Forensic Medicine, Shanxi Medicine University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China. Electronic address:
Department of Forensic Science, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:


Unbalanced DNA mixture is still a difficult problem for forensic practice. DIP-STRs are useful markers for detection of minor DNA but they are not widespread in the human genome and having long amplicons. In this study, we proposed a novel type of genetic marker, termed DIP-SNP. DIP-SNP refers to the combination of INDEL and SNP in less than 300bp length of human genome. The multiplex PCR and SNaPshot assay were established for 14 DIP-SNP markers in a Chinese Han population from Shanxi, China. This novel compound marker allows detection of the minor DNA contributor with sensitivity from 1:50 to 1:1000 in a DNA mixture of any gender with 1 ng-10 ng DNA template. Most of the DIP-SNP markers had a relatively high probability of informative alleles with an average I value of 0.33. In all, we proposed DIP-SNP as a novel kind of genetic marker for detection of minor contributor from unbalanced DNA mixture and established the detection method by associating the multiplex PCR and SNaPshot assay. DIP-SNP polymorphisms are promising markers for forensic or clinical mixture examination because they are shorter, widespread and higher sensitive.


DIP-SNP; Genetic polymorphism; Shanxi; Unbalanced mixture DNA

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