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Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 May;91(1):42-46. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.01.004. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Microbiological diagnosis of adult tuberculous meningitis in a ten-year cohort in Indonesia.

Author information

1
TB-HIV Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Eijkman 38, Bandung, Indonesia, 40161. Electronic address: lidya.chaidir@gmail.com.
2
TB-HIV Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Eijkman 38, Bandung, Indonesia, 40161.
3
TB-HIV Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Eijkman 38, Bandung, Indonesia, 40161; Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Pasteur 38, Sukajadi, Bandung, Indonesia, 40161.
4
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran /Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Pasteur 38, Sukajadi, Bandung, Indonesia, 40161.
5
Laboratory for Microbiology, Twente Achterhoek, Boerhaavelaan 59, Hengelo, The Netherlands, 7555, BB.
6
Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Groteplein Zuid 8, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 6500, HB.

Abstract

We evaluated microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Over a ten-year period, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 1180 adult meningitis suspects. Sensitivity of different methods was compared, and results were stratified for HIV status, disease severity, and CSF volume. TB meningitis was bacteriologically confirmed in 501 patients. Using clinical diagnosis as reference standard (n = 713), sensitivity of different methods was 12.2% (86/703) for microscopy, 42% (73/174) for Xpert MTB/RIF, 46.0% (163/354) for solid culture, 48.8% (332/680) for liquid culture, and 64.0% (212/331) for in-house PCR. Head to head comparisons in 654 patients showed a higher yield of in-house PCR (32.3%) compared to culture (15.6%, P < 0.01). Microscopic observation of drug susceptibility (MODS) culture more rapidly became positive compared to other culture methods. Yield of culture was lower in HIV-infected (39/105) than in HIV-negative patients (N = 316/585; P < 0.01). Molecular and culture methods gave higher yields in patients with more severe disease (P < 0.01). CSF volume of ≥6 ml increased the yield of culture (42.8% versus 12.1% for CSF <6 ml, P < 0.01) and ZN-microscopy (18.3% versus 1.9% for CSF <6 ml, P < 0.01). CSF centrifugation had no clear effect on sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF. ZN-microscopy lacks sensitivity for diagnosis of TB meningitis. For molecular assays, in-house IS6110-PCR is more sensitive than Xpert MTB/RIF. MODS culture has a clear advantage in terms of speed. Large CSF volumes are necessary for all tests. The effect of CSF processing for Xpert MTB/RIF needs further study.

KEYWORDS:

Adult; Diagnosis; Meningeal; Microbiology; Tuberculosis

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