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Chembiochem. 2018 Jun 18;19(12):1296-1304. doi: 10.1002/cbic.201800030. Epub 2018 Apr 14.

Optogenetic Control by Pulsed Illumination.

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Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Universität Bayreuth, 95447, Bayreuth, Germany.
Biophysikalische Chemie, Institut für Biologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10115, Berlin, Germany.


Sensory photoreceptors evoke numerous adaptive responses in nature and serve as light-gated actuators in optogenetics to enable the spatiotemporally precise, reversible, and noninvasive control of cellular events. The output of optogenetic circuits can often be dialed in by varying illumination quality, quantity, and duration. A programmable matrix of light-emitting diodes has been devised to efficiently probe the response of optogenetic systems to intermittently applied light of varying intensity and pulse frequency. Circuits for light-regulated gene expression markedly differed in their responses to pulsed illumination of a single color which sufficed for their sequential triggering. In addition to quantity and quality, the pulse frequency of intermittent light hence provides a further input variable for output control in optogenetics and photobiology. Pulsed illumination schemes allow the reduction of overall light dose and facilitate the multiplexing of several lightdependent actuators and reporters.


gene expression; optogenetics; photobiology; sensors; synthetic biology

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