Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2018 Feb 13;13(2):e0178157. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178157. eCollection 2018.

Attempts to grow human noroviruses, a sapovirus, and a bovine norovirus in vitro.

Author information

Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, United States of America.
Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.


Noroviruses (NoVs) and Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans. Currently, efficient cell culture systems have been established only for murine NoVs and porcine SaV Cowden strain. Establishment of an efficient in vitro cell culture system for other NoVs and SaVs remains challenging; however, human NoV (HuNoV) replication in 3D cultured Caco-2 cells and a clone of Caco-2 cells, C2BBe1, human enteroids and in human B cells has been reported. In this study, we tested various cells and culture conditions to grow HuNoVs and a human SaV (HuSaV) to test the possibility of the propagation in different cells and culture conditions. We also attempted to grow a bovine NoV (BoNoV) in ex vivo organ cultures. We did not observe significant RNA level increases for HuSaV and BoNoV under our test conditions. HuNoV RNA levels increased to a maximum of ~600-fold in long-term Caco-2 cells that were cultured for 1-2 months in multi-well plates and inoculated with HuNoV-positive and bacteria-free human stool suspensions using serum-free medium supplemented with the bile acid, GCDCA. However, this positive result was inconsistent. Our results demonstrated that HuNoVs, BoNoV and HuSaV largely failed to grow in vitro under our test conditions. Our purpose is to share our findings with other researchers with the goal to develop efficient, reproducible simplified and cost-effective culture systems for human and animal NoVs and SaVs in the future.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center