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Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018 Apr;25(4):R225-R245. doi: 10.1530/ERC-17-0515. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Role of iodide metabolism in physiology and cancer.

Author information

1
Tumor Endocrine Unit, Chronic Disease Program (UFIEC), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
2
CiberOnc, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
3
Department of Physiopathology of Endocrine a Nervous System, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas 'Alberto Sols', Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Iodide (I-) metabolism is crucial for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid and the subsequent action of these hormones in the organism. I- is principally transported by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and by the anion exchanger PENDRIN, and recent studies have demonstrated the direct participation of new transporters including anoctamin 1 (ANO1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and sodium multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Several of these transporters have been found expressed in various tissues, implicating them in I- recycling. New research supports the exciting idea that I- participates as a protective antioxidant and can be oxidized to hypoiodite, a potent oxidant involved in the host defense against microorganisms. This was possibly the original role of I- in biological systems, before the appearance of TH in evolution. I- per se participates in its own regulation, and new evidence indicates that it may be antineoplastic, anti-proliferative and cytotoxic in human cancer. Alterations in the expression of I- transporters are associated with tumor development in a cancer-type-dependent manner and, accordingly, NIS, CFTR and ANO1 have been proposed as tumor markers. Radioactive iodide has been the mainstay adjuvant treatment for thyroid cancer for the last seven decades by virtue of its active transport by NIS. The rapid advancement of techniques that detect radioisotopes, in particular I-, has made NIS a preferred target-specific theranostic agent.

KEYWORDS:

cancer; iodide transporters; iodine; iodine metabolism; sodium iodide symporter (NIS)

PMID:
29437784
DOI:
10.1530/ERC-17-0515
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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