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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Mar 27;62(4). pii: e02088-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02088-17. Print 2018 Apr.

Azole Resistance of Environmental and Clinical Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Switzerland.

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Service of Infectious Diseases and Service of Laboratory Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland.
Division of Pneumology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.
Agroscope, Strategic Research Division Plant Protection, Mycology and Biotechnology, Nyon, Switzerland.
Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne and University Hospital Center, Lausanne, Switzerland


Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen. This fungus can acquire resistance to azole antifungals due to mutations in the azole target (cyp51A). Recently, cyp51A mutations typical for environmental azole resistance acquisition (for example, TR34/L98H) have been reported. These mutations can also be found in isolates recovered from patients. Environmental azole resistance acquisition has been reported on several continents. Here we describe, for the first time, the occurrence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates of environmental origin in Switzerland with cyp51A mutations, and we show that these isolates can also be recovered from a few patients. While the TR34/L98H mutation was dominant, a single azole-resistant isolate exhibited a cyp51A mutation (G54R) that was reported only for clinical isolates. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that azole resistance with an environmental signature is present in environments and patients of Swiss origin and that mutations believed to be unique to clinical settings are now also observed in the environment.


Aspergillus; antifungal agents; antifungal resistance; azole

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