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J Biol Chem. 1986 Sep 15;261(26):12022-7.

Inhibition of protein Ca cofactor function of human and bovine protein S by C4b-binding protein.


Vitamin K-dependent protein S exists in two forms in plasma, as free protein and in a bimolecular, noncovalent complex with the regulatory complement protein C4b-binding protein (C4BP). The effects of C4BP on the protein Ca cofactor activity of protein S were studied in a plasma system and in a system using purified components from both human and bovine origin. Bovine protein S was found to interact with human C4BP with a 5-fold higher affinity than that observed for the interaction between human protein S and human C4BP. The binding of protein S, from either species, to human C4BP results in the loss of the protein Ca cofactor function. In bovine plasma, protein S could be totally complexed by the addition of human C4BP, with a concomitant total loss of protein Ca cofactor activity. The addition of purified human C4BP to human plasma resulted in only partial loss of protein Ca cofactor activity and the plasma protein S was not completely complexed. Human protein S functioned as a cofactor to human protein Ca, but not to bovine protein Ca, whereas bovine protein S demonstrated very little species specificity and functioned as a cofactor both with human and bovine protein Ca. The species specificity of the protein Ca-protein S interaction was useful in elucidating the effect of C4BP in the plasma system. In the system with purified bovine components, protein S was required for the degradation of factor Va by low concentrations of protein Ca, whereas in the system with human components protein Ca alone, even when added at very low concentrations, exhibited potential to degrade factor Va, and the presence of protein S only enhanced the reaction rate approximately 5-fold. In both these systems, the stimulating effect of protein S on factor Va degradation by protein Ca was completely lost when protein S bound to C4BP.

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