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J Leukoc Biol. 2018 Feb 12. doi: 10.1002/JLB.3MIR0817-337R. [Epub ahead of print]

Negative regulators that mediate ocular immune privilege.

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Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.


The ocular microenvironment has adapted several negative regulators of inflammation to maintain immune privilege and health of the visual axis. Several constitutively produced negative regulators within the eye TGF-β2, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), Fas ligand (FasL), and PD-L1 standout because of their capacity to influence multiple pathways of inflammation, and that they are part of promoting immune tolerance. These regulators demonstrate the capacity of immune privilege to prevent the activation of inflammation, and to suppress activation of effector immune cells even under conditions of ocular inflammation induced by endotoxin and autoimmune disease. In addition, these negative regulators promote and expand immune cells that mediate regulatory and tolerogenic immunity. This in turn makes the immune cells themselves negative regulators of inflammation. This provides for a greater understanding of immune privilege in that it includes both molecular and cellular negative regulators of inflammation. This would mean that potentially new approaches to the treatment of autoimmune disease can be developed through the use of molecules and cells as negative regulators of inflammation.


Immunosuppression; anti-inflammatory; eye; neuropeptides; regulatory T cells; suppressor macrophages; tolerance

[Available on 2019-08-12]

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