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Clin Neuropsychol. 2019 Jan;33(1):137-165. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2018.1435824. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Miami Prospective Memory Test in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Author information

a School of Psychology , Centre de recherche CERVO de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Québec, Laval University , Québec City , Canada.
b Département de Psychologie , Université du Québec à Montréal , Québec , Canada.
c Institute on Aging & Lifelong Health , University of Victoria , Victoria , Canada.
d School of Psychology , University of Ottawa , Ottawa , Canada.
e Department of Psychology , University of Saskatchewan , Saskatoon , Canada.
f Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact , Hamilton , Canada.
g Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Occupational Health , McGill University , Montreal , Canada.
h Department of Community Health and Epidemiology , Dalhousie University , Halifax , Canada.
i Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, Labarge Centre for Mobility in Aging, McMaster Institute for Research on Aging , McMaster University , Hamilton , Canada.



The aim of this study was to verify the effect of age, education and sex on Miami Prospective Memory Test (MPMT) performance obtained at baseline of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) by neurologically healthy French- and English-speaking subsamples of participants (N = 18,511).


The CLSA is a nation-wide large epidemiological study with participants aged 45-85 years old at baseline. The MPMT is an event- and time-based measure of prospective memory, with scores of intention, accuracy and need for reminders, administered as part of the Comprehensive data collection. Participants who did not self-report any conditions that could impact cognition were selected, which resulted in 15,103 English- and 3408 French-speaking participants. The samples are stratified according to four levels of education and four age groups (45-54; 55-64; 65-74; 75+).


There is a significant age effect for English- and French-speaking participants on the Event-based, Time-based, and Event- + Time-based scores of the MPMT. The effect of the education level was also demonstrated on the three MPMT scores in the English-speaking group. The score 'Intention to perform' was the most sensitive to the effect of age in both the English and French samples. Sex had no impact on performance on the MPMT.


This study confirms the impact of age and level of education on this new prospective memory task. It informs future research with this measure including the development of normative data in French- and English-speaking Canadians on the Event-based and Time-based MPMT.


CLSA; Miami Prospective Memory Test; Prospective memory; older adults; population-based

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