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Chemistry. 2018 Jun 12;24(33):8268-8274. doi: 10.1002/chem.201705651. Epub 2018 May 2.

Primed Conversion: The New Kid on the Block for Photoconversion.

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Department for Biosystems Science and Engineering (D-BSSE), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, 4058, Basel, Switzerland.
Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, 20147, USA.


In 2015, a novel way to convert photoconvertible fluorescent proteins was reported that uses the intercept of blue and far-red light instead of traditional violet or near-UV light illumination. This Minireview describes and contrasts this distinct two-step mechanism termed primed conversion with traditional photoconversion. We provide a comprehensive overview of what is known to date about primed conversion and focus on the molecular requirements for it to take place. We provide examples of its application to axially confined photoconversion in complex tissues as well as super-resolution microscopy. Further, we describe why and when it is useful, including its advantages and disadvantages, and give an insight into potential future development in the field.


fluorescent proteins; photoconversion; photoconvertible fluorescent proteins; primed conversion; triplet primed state


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