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Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 Feb 5;40(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s40902-018-0141-9. eCollection 2018 Dec.

Recent advances in the reconstruction of cranio-maxillofacial defects using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

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Department of Oral and MaxilloFacial Surgery, Dental Hospital, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, South Korea.


With the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, it has been possible to reconstruct the cranio-maxillofacial defect with more accurate preoperative planning, precise patient-specific implants (PSIs), and shorter operation times. The manufacturing processes include subtractive manufacturing and additive manufacturing and should be selected in consideration of the material type, available technology, post-processing, accuracy, lead time, properties, and surface quality. Materials such as titanium, polyethylene, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), hydroxyapatite (HA), poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA), polylactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA), and calcium phosphate are used. Design methods for the reconstruction of cranio-maxillofacial defects include the use of a pre-operative model printed with pre-operative data, printing a cutting guide or template after virtual surgery, a model after virtual surgery printed with reconstructed data using a mirror image, and manufacturing PSIs by directly obtaining PSI data after reconstruction using a mirror image. By selecting the appropriate design method, manufacturing process, and implant material according to the case, it is possible to obtain a more accurate surgical procedure, reduced operation time, the prevention of various complications that can occur using the traditional method, and predictive results compared to the traditional method.


Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing; Cranio-maxillofacial defect; Custom implant; Patient-specific implant; Reconstructive surgical procedures; Three-dimensional imaging

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Not applicable.Not applicable.The author declares no competing interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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