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Mol Cell Biochem. 2018 Nov;448(1-2):91-105. doi: 10.1007/s11010-018-3317-9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

CO2/bicarbonate modulates cone photoreceptor ROS-GC1 and restores its CORD6-linked catalytic activity.

Author information

1
Research Divisions of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Unit of Regulatory and Molecular Biology, Salus University, Elkins Park, PA, USA.
2
Research Divisions of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Unit of Regulatory and Molecular Biology, Salus University, Elkins Park, PA, USA. rsharma@salus.edu.

Abstract

This study with recombinant reconstituted system mimicking the cellular conditions of the native cones documents that photoreceptor ROS-GC1 is modulated by gaseous CO2. Mechanistically, CO2 is sensed by carbonic anhydrase (CAII), generates bicarbonate that, in turn, directly targets the core catalytic domain of ROS-GC1, and activates it to increased synthesis of cyclic GMP. This, then, functions as a second messenger for the cone phototransduction. The study demonstrates that, in contrast to the Ca2+-modulated phototransduction, the CO2 pathway is Ca2+-independent, yet is linked with it and synergizes it. It, through R787C mutation in the third heptad of the signal helix domain of ROS-GC1, affects cone-rod dystrophy, CORD6. CORD6 is caused firstly by lowered basal and GCAP1-dependent ROS-GC1 activity and secondly, by a shift in Ca2+ sensitivity of the ROS-GC1/GCAP1 complex that remains active in darkness. Remarkably, the first but not the second defect disappears with bicarbonate thus explaining the basis for CORD6 pathological severity. Because cones, but not rods, express CAII, the excessive synthesis of cyclic GMP would be most acute in cones.

KEYWORDS:

CO2; Ca2+-sensor GCAP1; Cone-rod dystrophy; Membrane guanylate cyclase; Phototransduction

PMID:
29427171
DOI:
10.1007/s11010-018-3317-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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