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J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 May-Jun;37(4):293-301. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2017.1396266. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

A Lean Pork-Containing Breakfast Reduces Hunger and Glycemic Response Compared to a Refined Carbohydrate-Containing Breakfast in Adults with Prediabetes.

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a Midwest Biomedical Research, Center for Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health , Glen Ellyn , Illinois , USA.
b Center for Nutrition Research, Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology , Chicago , Illinois , USA.



Replacing dietary refined carbohydrates (CHO) with protein may impact appetite and glucose and lipid metabolism in metabolically at-risk individuals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of consumption of a lean pork-containing, high-protein (pPro) breakfast versus a refined-CHO-rich breakfast for 2 weeks on appetite and cardiometabolic parameters in overweight or obese adults with prediabetes.


In this crossover study, overweight or obese men and women with prediabetes were provided with either a pPro breakfast meal or a refined-CHO breakfast meal to consume each day (2-week intervention, ≥ 2-week washout). On the last day of each period, fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and lipid values were assessed. Visual analog scales were used to evaluate appetite, mental energy, and focus; energy intake at a lunch meal was also evaluated.


Data from 21 participants (13 females and 8 males) were analyzed and participants had a mean (± standard error of the mean) age of 44.4 ± 3.1 years and body mass index of 30.4 ± 0.9 kg/m2. Mean hunger net incremental area under the curve to 240 minutes postmeal (niAUC0-240 min) and desire to eat niAUC0-240 min were both significantly (p < 0.05) lower following the pPro breakfast intakes compared to the refined-CHO breakfast intakes. Mean incremental area under the curve to 240 minutes postmeal for glucose and insulin were significantly lower (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively) following the pPro breakfast versus refined-CHO breakfast, and mean percentage change from baseline for triglycerides (TG) at 120 minutes was also less pronounced, 10.0% ± 6.8% versus 32.3% ± 7.7%, respectively (p = 0.001). No other significant differences were observed for outcome variables.


Intake of a higher-protein, lean pork-containing breakfast may favorably impact appetite and lower postprandial glucose, insulin, and TG values, although longer-term studies are warranted.


Pork; glucose metabolism; insulin sensitivity; lipid metabolism; prediabetes; protein; refined carbohydrate; satiety

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