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Crit Care. 2018 Feb 9;22(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-1955-7.

Copeptin levels and commonly used laboratory parameters in hospitalised patients with severe hypernatraemia - the "Co-MED study".

Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland. nicole.nigro@spital.so.ch.
2
Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland. nicole.nigro@spital.so.ch.
3
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.
4
Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.
5
Medical University Clinic and Divisions of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.
6
Nephrology, Dialysis & Transplantation, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.
7
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypernatraemia is common in inpatients and is associated with substantial morbidity. Its differential diagnosis is challenging, and delayed treatment may have devastating consequences. The most important hormone for the regulation of water homeostasis is arginine vasopressin, and copeptin, the C-terminal portion of the precursor peptide of arginine vasopressin, might be a reliable new parameter with which to assess the underlying cause of hypernatraemia.

METHODS:

In this prospective, multicentre, observational study conducted in two tertiary referral centres in Switzerland, 92 patients with severe hyperosmolar hypernatraemia (Na+ > 155 mmol/L) were included. After a standardised diagnostic evaluation, the underlying cause of hypernatraemia was identified and copeptin levels were measured.

RESULTS:

The most common aetiology of hypernatraemia was dehydration (DH) (n = 65 [71%]), followed by salt overload (SO) (n = 20 [22%]), central diabetes insipidus (CDI) (n = 5 [5%]) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) (n = 2 [2%]). Low urine osmolality was indicative for patients with CDI and NDI (P < 0.01). Patients with CDI had lower copeptin levels than patients with DH or SO (both P < 0.01) or those with NDI. Copeptin identified CDI with an AUC of 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.00), and a cut-off value ≤ 4.4pmol/L showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99% to predict CDI. Similarly, urea values were lower in CDI than in DH or SO (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) or NDI. The AUC for diagnosing CDI was 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-1.00), and a cut-off value < 5.05 mmol/L showed high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of CDI (98% and 100%, respectively). Copeptin and urea could not differentiate hypernatraemia induced by DH from that induced by SO (P = 0.66 and P = 0.30, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

Copeptin and urea reliably identify patients with CDI and are therefore helpful tools for therapeutic management in patients with severe hypernatraemia.

TRIALS REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01456533 . Registered on 20 October 2011.

KEYWORDS:

Copeptin; Differential diagnosis; Severe hypernatraemia; Symptoms and characteristics

PMID:
29422070
PMCID:
PMC5806470
DOI:
10.1186/s13054-018-1955-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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