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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Mar;218(3):351.e1-351.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.01.022. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Associations of neighborhood-level racial residential segregation with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Author information

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chicago, IL; Northwestern Medical Group, Chicago, IL.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:



Previous analyses utilizing birth certificate data have shown environmental factors such as racial residential segregation may contribute to disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, birth certificate data are ill equipped to reliably differentiate among small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth, and medically indicated preterm birth.


We sought to utilize data from electronic medical records to determine whether residential segregation among Black women is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.


The study population was composed of 4770 non-Hispanic Black women who delivered during the years 2009 through 2013 at a single urban medical center. Addresses were geocoded at the level of census tract, and this tract was used to determine the degree of residential segregation for an individual's neighborhood. Residential segregation was measured using the Gi* statistic, a z-score that measures the extent to which the neighborhood racial composition deviates from the composition of the larger surrounding area. The Gi* statistic z-scores were categorized as follows: low (z < 0), medium (z = 0-1.96), and high (z > 1.96). Adverse pregnancy outcomes included overall preterm birth, spontaneous preterm birth, medically indicated preterm birth, and small for gestational age. Hierarchical logistic regression models accounting for clustering by census tract and repeated births among mothers were used to estimate odds ratios of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with segregation.


In high segregation areas, the prevalence of overall preterm birth was significantly higher than that in low segregation areas (15.5% vs 10.7%, respectively; P < .001). Likewise, the prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth and medically indicated preterm birth were higher in high (9.5% and 6.0%) vs low (6.2% and 4.6%) segregation neighborhoods (P < .001 and P = .046, respectively). The associations of high segregation with overall preterm birth (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.69) and spontaneous preterm birth (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.85) remained significant with adjustment for neighborhood poverty, insurance status, parity, and maternal medical conditions.


Among non-Hispanic Black women in an urban area, high levels of segregation were independently associated with the higher odds of spontaneous preterm birth. These findings highlight one aspect of social determinants (ie, segregation) through which adverse pregnancy outcomes may be influenced and points to a potential target for intervention.


electronic medical records; medically indicated preterm birth; preterm birth; segregation; small for gestational age; spontaneous preterm birth

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