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Nutr Res. 2018 Jan;49:23-36. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2017.09.005. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Potential roles of vitamin E in age-related changes in skeletal muscle health.

Author information

1
Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition. University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address: eunhee.chung@utsa.edu.
2
Department of Nutrition, Byrdine F. Lewis School of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address: hmo@gsu.edu.
3
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.. Electronic address: Shu.wang@ttu.edu.
4
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.. Electronic address: yujiao.zu@ttu.edu.
5
Department of Nutrition, Byrdine F. Lewis School of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address: melfakhani@gsu.edu.
6
Department of Kinesiology and Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA. Electronic address: steven.rios@ttu.edu.
7
Graduate Healthcare Engineering, Whitacre College of Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. Electronic address: m.chyu@ttu.edu.
8
Department of Orthopedics, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan.. Electronic address: rsyang@ntuh.gov.tw.
9
Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA. Electronic address: Leslie.Shen@ttuhsc.edu.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia. Preclinical and human experimental studies show that vitamin E benefits myoblast proliferation, differentiation, survival, membrane repair, mitochondrial efficiency, muscle mass, muscle contractile properties, and exercise capacity. Limited number of human cross-sectional observational studies reveal positive associations between serum tocopherol level and muscle strength. Several factors, including difficulties in validating vitamin E intake and deficiency, variations in muscle-protective activity and metabolism of diverse forms of vitamin E, and lack of understanding of the mechanisms of action, preclude randomized clinical trials of vitamin E in people with sarcopenia. Future research should consider long-term clinical trials of with adequate sample size, advanced imaging technology and omics approaches to investigate underlying mechanisms and assess clinically meaningful parameters such as muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle mass in sarcopenia prevention and/or treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Sarcopenia; Skeletal muscle; Tocopherols; Tocotrienols

PMID:
29420990
DOI:
10.1016/j.nutres.2017.09.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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