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Nutrients. 2018 Feb 8;10(2). pii: E188. doi: 10.3390/nu10020188.

Macronutrient Composition and Food Form Affect Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans.

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Nutricia Research, Matrix Building #05-01b, 30 Biopolis Street, Singapore 138671, Singapore.
Danone Early Life Nutrition, Cyber 2 Tower, 15th Floor, Jl. HR. Rasuna Said #X-5 No. 13, South Jakarta 12950, Indonesia.
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre (CNRC), Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), and National University Health System, Centre for Translational Medicine, 14 Medical Drive #07-02, MD 6 Building, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore 117599, Singapore.
Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117596, Singapore.
Nutricia Research, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Nutricia Research, Uppsalalaan 12, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Centre Groningen, CA84, Room Y2.115, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.


Glycaemic index (GI) is used as an indicator to guide consumers in making healthier food choices. We compared the GI, insulin index (II), and the area under the curve for blood glucose and insulin as glucose (GR) and insulin responses (IR) of a newly developed liquid nutritional formula with one commercially available liquid product with different types of carbohydrates. We then evaluated the glucose and insulin responses of two test foods with comparable energy density and protein percentage but presented in different food forms (liquid vs. solid). Fourteen healthy women participated in the study. GI, II, GR, and IR were assessed after (independent) consumption of two liquid products and a solid breakfast meal. The two liquid foods showed comparable GI, whilst the liquid form appeared to produce lower median GI (25 vs. 54), and II (52 vs. 98) values compared to the solid breakfast (p < 0.02). The median GR and IR for solid breakfast were respectively 44% and 45% higher compared to the liquid product (p < 0.02). Liquid formulas with different carbohydrate qualities produced comparable glucose responses, while foods with comparable energy density and protein percentage but different food form elicited differential effects on GI, II, GR, and IR. Nutrient quality and food form need to be taken into consideration when developing low GI products to manage glycaemic responses.


carbohydrate quality; glycaemic and insulin responses; glycaemic index; insulinemic index; nutritional formula; protein quality

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