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J Family Med Prim Care. 2017 Jul-Sep;6(3):595-599. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.222013.

Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in stable patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Sub-Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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Department of Radiodiagnosis, IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are common observations in COPD and degree of the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) has been found to be proportionate to the severity of the disease.


Our objective was to study the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in stable COPD patients in Indian Sub-Himalayan population.

Materials and Methods:

This study was performed on 84 patients of COPD attending as outpatient in the Pulmonary Medicine Department after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. A control group of 60 healthy controls was selected for comparison with COPD group. Spirometry was done on patients to stage the severity of COPD according to global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of the lumbar spine was done using bone densitometer to determine the severity of reduced BMD. The patients were categorized according to the World Health Organization criterion for definition of reduced BMD.


In the present study, a total of 45.2% patients had osteoporosis, 41.6% patients had osteopenia while the rest 13% patients had normal bone density in the COPD group. The prevalence of low bone density was about 4 times higher in COPD group as compared to control group. There were 15.48 times higher chances of low BMD in COPD patients as compared to healthy controls.


Reduced BMD is a common comorbid entity in COPD patients which leads to increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. It is recommended that all the patients with COPD should be screened for osteoporosis to initiate the treatment for the disorder before they develop fractures.


Bone mineral density; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; fracture; global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria; spirometry

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