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J Vet Med Sci. 2018 Apr 18;80(4):620-628. doi: 10.1292/jvms.17-0428. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of bone mineral density in beagle dogs: comparison with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as a gold standard.

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Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 120, Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, South Korea.
Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea.


This study aimed to demonstrate the higher accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a gold standard for measuring canine bone mineral density (BMD). Seven middle-aged beagle dogs underwent lumbar vertebral and bilateral femoral DXA and QCT scans. BMD (mg/cm2) was measured at the vertebral body from L2 to L6, femoral neck, and proximal and distal femoral diaphyses. The BMD values were measured 3 times and compared. The BMD value on QCT was higher than that on DXA for femoral BMD but not for vertebral BMD. The correlation was strong for the lumbar vertebrae (r=0.66) and was strongest for L3 (r=0.85). No correlation was found for the femoral neck (P=0.35), and only moderate correlations were found for the proximal and distal femoral diaphyses (r=0.43 and r=0.40, respectively). The limits of agreement were narrower for vertebral BMD than for femoral BMD, and L3 had the narrowest limits of agreement. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was higher for DXA than for QCT at all lumbar and femoral sites measured, but the ICC of QCT was higher than 0.7. In conclusion, L3 can be used to monitor changes in BMD, and relative values and sequential monitoring of femoral BMD can also be useful because of the high reproducibility of QCT measurements. QCT would be a useful technique for evaluation of BMD in veterinary practice.


bone mineral density (BMD); dog; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); quantitative computed tomography (QCT)

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