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Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Mar;80:68-74. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.12.041. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

A modern epilepsy surgery treatment algorithm: Incorporating traditional and emerging technologies.

Author information

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1500 21st Avenue South, 4340 Village at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN 37212, USA; Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1500 21st Avenue South, 4340 Village at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN 37212, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1500 21st Avenue South, 4340 Village at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN 37212, USA; The Vanderbilt Epilepsy Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1500 21st Avenue South, 4340 Village at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Electronic address: englot@gmail.com.

Abstract

Epilepsy surgery has seen numerous technological advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in recent years. This has increased the number of patients who may be candidates for intervention and potential improvement in quality of life. However, the expansion of the field also necessitates a broader understanding of how to incorporate both traditional and emerging technologies into the care provided at comprehensive epilepsy centers. This review summarizes both old and new surgical procedures in epilepsy using an example algorithm. While treatment algorithms are inherently oversimplified, incomplete, and reflect personal bias, they provide a general framework that can be customized to each center and each patient, incorporating differences in provider opinion, patient preference, and the institutional availability of technologies. For instance, the use of minimally invasive stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) has increased dramatically over the past decade, but many cases still benefit from invasive recordings using subdural grids. Furthermore, although surgical resection remains the gold-standard treatment for focal mesial temporal or neocortical epilepsy, ablative procedures such as laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be appropriate and avoid craniotomy in many cases. Furthermore, while palliative surgical procedures were once limited to disconnection surgeries, several neurostimulation treatments are now available to treat eloquent cortical, bitemporal, and even multifocal or generalized epilepsy syndromes. An updated perspective in epilepsy surgery will help guide surgical decision making and lay the groundwork for data collection needed in future studies and trials.

KEYWORDS:

Decision-making; Epilepsy; Flowchart; Resection; Surgery

PMID:
29414561
PMCID:
PMC5845806
DOI:
10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.12.041
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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