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Cancer Lett. 2018 Apr 10;419:175-186. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.01.055.

Thyroid hormone in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma and its microenvironment.

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Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (SC), USA. Electronic address:
Regeneration and Repair, Institute of Hepatology, Division of Transplantation Immunology and Mucosal Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5242, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon, France.
Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (SC), USA; Section of Gastroenterology, Ralph H Johnson Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Charleston (SC), USA. Electronic address:


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) commonly arises from a liver damaged by extensive inflammation and fibrosis. Various factors including cytokines, morphogens, and growth factors are involved in the crosstalk between HCC cells and the stromal microenvironment. Increasing our understanding of how stromal components interact with HCC and the signaling pathways involved could help identify new therapeutic and/or chemopreventive targets. It has become increasingly clear that the cross-talk between tumor cells and host stroma plays a key role in modulating tumor growth. Emerging reports suggest a relationship between HCC and thyroid hormone signaling (dysfunction), raising the possibility that perturbed thyroid hormone (TH) regulation influences the cancer microenvironment and cancer phenotype. This review provides an overview of the role of thyroid hormone and its related pathways in HCC and, specifically, its role in regulating the tumor microenvironment.


Liver cancer; Liver fibrogenesis; Thyroid hormone; Tumor microenvironment

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