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Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2018 Mar;30(1):157-166. doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2017.10.014. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Gastrointestinal Traumatic Injuries: Gastrointestinal Perforation.

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School of Nursing, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A Merritt Boulevard, Campus Box 9590, Nashville, TN 37132, USA. Electronic address:
Grants, Research and Outreach of West AL Division, Tombigbee Healthcare Authority, 105 US Highway 80 East, Demopolis, AL 36732, USA.
Department of Structural Heart, St. Thomas West Hospital, 4330 Harding Road, Suite 535, Nashville, TN 37205, USA.


The abdomen is a big place even in a small person. Gastrointestinal trauma can result in injury to the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. Traumatic causes include blunt or penetrating trauma, such as gunshot wounds, stabbings, motor vehicle collisions, and crush injuries. Nontraumatic causes include appendicitis, Crohn disease, cancer, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, blockage of the bowel, and chemotherapy. The mechanism of injury will affect both the nature and severity of any resulting injuries. Treatment must address the critical and emergent nature of these injuries as well as issues that affect all trauma situations, which include management of hemodynamic instability.


Gastrointestinal trauma; Hemorrhagic shock; OPQRST; SAMPLE; Trauma

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