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Clin Anat. 2018 Apr;31(3):339-346. doi: 10.1002/ca.23059. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Positional relationship between the pectoralis major and external abdominal oblique muscles for consideration during dual-plane breast augmentation.

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Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institution, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Change Clinic, Apgujung-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06010, South Korea.
ES Clinic, Sinchon-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03787, South Korea.
Miaero Clinic, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08788, South Korea.


During dual plane breast augmentation (DPBA), the costal origin of the pectoralis major (the PM) should be cut to ensure appropriate coverage and positioning of an implant. However, surgeons sometimes make inappropriate planar incisions and insufficient muscular incisions because the external abdominal oblique (the EAO) muscle partially overlaps the lateral portion of the PM. The goal of this study was to clarify the positional relationship between the PM and EAO with the aim of improving the accuracy of implant and muscular incisions during DPBA. Forty sides of 20 embalmed and fresh cadavers were dissected. The midline and midclavicular line (MCL) were used as reference lines for measurements. We clarified the overlapping patterns between the PM and EAO, and measured the distances from the MCL to the borders of those two muscles. The costal part of the PM originated from the 5th (25%), 6th (70%), or 7th rib (5%), respectively. The distances from the MCL to the lateral border of the PM at the 4th, 5th, and 6th ribs were 49.8 mm, 30.5 mm, and 6.3 mm, respectively. In 90% of the specimens, the PM and the EAO overlapped near the MCL. The width of the overlapping portion between the PM and EAO was about 25 mm. This study is one of the first to suggest an innovative approach for explaining the positional relationships between the PM and EAO. Our findings can be useful for surgeons attempting to produce optimal outcomes in DPBA, especially in procedures that involve patients of different races. Clin. Anat. 31:339-346, 2018.


external abdominal oblique; mammaplasty; pectoralis major

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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