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Appl Ergon. 2018 Apr;68:240-248. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2017.12.002. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Fit, stability and comfort assessment of custom-fitted bicycle helmet inner liner designs, based on 3D anthropometric data.

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School of Engineering [Mechanical and Automotive], RMIT University, Bundoora, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address:
School of Engineering [Mechanical and Automotive], RMIT University, Bundoora, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia.
Swinburne Research & Development, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.


Research has demonstrated that a better-fitted bicycle helmet offers improved protection to the rider during an impact. Nowadays, bicycle helmets in the market that range in size from small/medium to medium/large might not fit the diverse range of human head shapes and dimensions. 3D scanning was used to create 3D head shape databases of 20 participants who volunteered for the study. We developed new custom-fitted helmet inner liners, based on the 3D head shape of two sub-groups of participants, to map their head sizes and contours closely to the conventional Medium (M) and Large (L) sizes as described in from AS/NZS 2512.1: 2009. The new custom-fitted helmet was compared with the helmet available in the market place in a dynamics stability test and from participants' subjective feedback. A significant reduction in the angle of helmet rotation on the headform in the lateral direction was recorded for the custom-fitted helmet. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to evaluate participants' feedback on the helmets according to different area definitions. The overall fit and comfort and the top region of the new helmet were significantly improved. However, no difference was found at the significant level of 0.05 for the front and rear region of the new helmet.


Anthropometry; Fit and comfort; Helmet; Mass customization; Stability

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