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Appl Ergon. 2018 Apr;68:12-17. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2017.10.014. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Symptoms associated with reading from a smartphone in conditions of light and dark.

Author information

1
Applied Vision Research Group, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Complutense University of Madrid, 28037 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: bantona@ucm.es.
2
Applied Vision Research Group, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Complutense University of Madrid, 28037 Madrid, Spain.
3
Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Complutense University of Madrid, 28037 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Asthenopia symptoms were investigated in visually-normal subjects without computer-related vision symptoms after prolonged reading from: smartphone versus hardcopy under photopic conditions, and smartphone in conditions of ambient versus dark room illumination. After reading from the smartphone, total symptom scores and nine out of ten questionnaire symptoms were significantly worse than for the hardcopy ("blurred vision while viewing the text, "blurred distance vision after the task", "difficulty in refocusing from one distance to another", "irritated or burning eyes", "dry eyes", "eyestrain", "tired eyes", "sensitivity to bright lights" and "eye discomfort"). Mean total symptom scores and scores for "irritated or burning eyes" and "dry eyes" were significantly higher for the dark versus photopic conditions. In conclusion, prolonged smartphone reading could cause worse asthenopic symptoms than reading from a hardcopy under similar conditions. Symptoms could be even worse when reading from a smartphone in the dark.

KEYWORDS:

Asthenopia symptom; Dark environment; Reading; Smartphone

PMID:
29409625
DOI:
10.1016/j.apergo.2017.10.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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