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Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2018 Mar;53:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2018.01.021. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

In vivo study of paraspinal muscle weakness using botulinum toxin in one primate model.

Author information

1
Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.
2
National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.
3
National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
4
National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; School of Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
5
National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
7
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin, Republic of Korea.
8
National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: changkt@kribb.re.kr.
9
National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: srlee@kribb.re.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It has been generally speculated that paraspinal muscle weakness is related to the spinal degeneration including intervertebral disc failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of paraspinal muscle weakness induced by the botulinum toxin type-A on the lumbar spine and behavior pattern in an in-vivo primate model which has an upright locomotion similar to that of humans.

METHODS:

Botox injections into paraspinal muscle of one cynomolgus monkey were conducted biweekly up to 19 weeks at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5. MRIs were performed for measurement of muscle cross-sectional areas and behavioral data were collected using a high-resolution portable digital video camera.

FINDINGS:

The cross-sectional areas of the paraspinal muscles at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 decreased by 8%, 12% and 8% at 21 weeks after the Botox injection, respectively. Intervertebral disc thickness at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 decreased by 6%, 8% and 5% at 21 weeks after initial Botox injection, respectively. After the Botox injections, locomotion and movement activity of the monkey was decreased. The duration of sitting increased from 21% to a maximum of 97% at 9 weeks after the Botox injection, while stance time decreased from 9% to a minimum of 1% at 11 weeks post Botox injection.

INTERPRETATION:

The findings of this study revealed that paraspinal muscle atrophy affects intervertebral disc morphology and locomotion activity of a primate and may lead to an onset of intervertebral disc degeneration.

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