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Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Feb 3;19(2). pii: E461. doi: 10.3390/ijms19020461.

Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects.

Author information

1
School of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Wuyi University; International Healthcare Innovation Institute (Jiangmen), Jiangmen 529020, Guangdong, China. hang_ma@uri.edu.
2
Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. hang_ma@uri.edu.
3
George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. hang_ma@uri.edu.
4
Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. shelby_johnson@uri.edu.
5
George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. shelby_johnson@uri.edu.
6
Department of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. weixi_liu@my.uri.edu.
7
Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. ndasilva@my.uri.edu.
8
George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. ndasilva@my.uri.edu.
9
Department of Chemistry, Salve Regina University, Newport, RI 02840, USA. Susan.Meschwitz@salve.edu.
10
Department of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. jdain@chm.uri.edu.
11
Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. nseeram@uri.edu.
12
George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. nseeram@uri.edu.

Abstract

Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ). Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1) total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2) free radical (DPPH) scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO) trapping, (3) anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models), (4) anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models), and, (5) murine microglia (BV-2) neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE) were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF) and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL) reduced H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H₂O₂-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; berry anthocyanins; beta amyloid; glycation; neuroprotection; oxidative stress

PMID:
29401686
PMCID:
PMC5855683
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19020461
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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