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Nat Med. 2018 Mar;24(3):352-359. doi: 10.1038/nm.4478. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

A novel chimeric antigen receptor containing a JAK-STAT signaling domain mediates superior antitumor effects.

Author information

1
Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
2
Takara Bio, Inc., Kusatsu, Japan.
3
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
5
Department of Hematology-Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

The adoptive transfer of T cells engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) (hereafter referred to as CAR-T cells) specific for the B lymphocyte antigen CD19 has shown impressive clinical responses in patients with refractory B cell malignancies. However, the therapeutic effects of CAR-T cells that target other malignancies have not yet resulted in significant clinical benefit. Although inefficient tumor trafficking and various immunosuppressive mechanisms can impede CAR-T cell effector responses, the signals delivered by the current CAR constructs may still be insufficient to fully activate antitumor T cell functions. Optimal T cell activation and proliferation requires multiple signals, including T cell receptor (TCR) engagement (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2) and cytokine engagement (signal 3). However, CAR constructs currently being tested in the clinic contain a CD3z (TCR signaling) domain and co-stimulatory domain(s) but not a domain that transmits signal 3 (refs. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18). Here we have developed a novel CAR construct capable of inducing cytokine signaling after antigen stimulation. This new-generation CD19 CAR encodes a truncated cytoplasmic domain from the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor β-chain (IL-2Rβ) and a STAT3-binding tyrosine-X-X-glutamine (YXXQ) motif, together with the TCR signaling (CD3z) and co-stimulatory (CD28) domains (hereafter referred to as 28-ΔIL2RB-z(YXXQ)). The 28-ΔIL2RB-z(YXXQ) CAR-T cells showed antigen-dependent activation of the JAK kinase and of the STAT3 and STAT5 transcription factors signaling pathways, which promoted their proliferation and prevented terminal differentiation in vitro. The 28-ΔIL2RB-z(YXXQ) CAR-T cells demonstrated superior in vivo persistence and antitumor effects in models of liquid and solid tumors as compared with CAR-T cells expressing a CD28 or 4-1BB co-stimulatory domain alone. Taken together, these results suggest that our new-generation CAR has the potential to demonstrate superior antitumor effects with minimal toxicity in the clinic and that clinical translation of this novel CAR is warranted.

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