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Brain Dev. 2018 May;40(5):383-390. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.01.009. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Diagnostic challenge for the rare lysosomal storage disease: Late infantile GM1 gangliosidosis.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Department of Genome Medicine and Science, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea.
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; Green Cross Genome, Green Cross Laboratories, Yong-in, South Korea.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience Center, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
5
Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
7
Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience Center, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: chaeped1@snu.ac.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

GM1 gangliosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by GLB1 mutations. Because of its extreme rarity and symptoms that overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases, its diagnosis is sometimes challenging, especially in the late infantile form with less severe phenotype. We aim to expand the clinical and genetic spectrum of late infantile GM1 gangliosidosis.

METHODS:

We confirmed a diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis based on GLB1 mutations and/or the deficiency of β-galactosidase activity. We identified the first two cases by whole-exome sequencing, and then the other six cases by direct sequencing of GLB1 with enzyme analysis.

RESULTS:

All eight patients presented with developmental delay or regression during late infancy and later developed epilepsy, mostly intractable generalized tonic seizures. No clinical signs of storage disorders were noted except for skeletal abnormalities. Interestingly, we found aspartate transaminase (AST) elevations alone with normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in all patients. The recurrent mutation, p.D448V in GLB1, accounted for 50.0% of total alleles in our cohort.

CONCLUSIONS:

With a high index of clinical suspicion, skeletal survey and AST level would be important for early diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis. In addition, we would highlight the clinical usefulness of whole-exome sequencing in the diagnosis of non-classical presentation of ultra-rare neurodegenerative disease in children.

KEYWORDS:

Aspartate transaminase; GLB1; GM1 gangliosidosis; Whole-exome sequencing

PMID:
29439846
DOI:
10.1016/j.braindev.2018.01.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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