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Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2017 Dec;8:106-113. doi: 10.1016/j.conctc.2017.09.006. Epub 2017 Sep 17.

Recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Community of Voices choir study to promote the health and well-being of diverse older adults.

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Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Center for Aging in Diverse Communities, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Department of Cognitive and Information Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA, USA.



To describe the recruitment and baseline results of the Community of Voices study that aims to examine the effect of a community choir intervention on the health and well-being of older adults from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.


Using community-based participatory research methods, we recruited adults age 60 and over from 12 Administration on Aging-supported senior centers in San Francisco into a 2-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial of the community choir intervention. Multiple outreach methods were used. We tracked outreach, screening, and recruitment metrics and collected demographics and baseline outcomes via community-based, interviewer-administered surveys and performance measures of cognition, physical function, and psychosocial variables.


The study contacted 819 individuals, screened 636, and enrolled 390 diverse older adults over a 42-month, phased recruitment period. The mean age was 71.2 (SD = 7.3), and the majority were women. Two-thirds of the sample are non-white, and 20% of participants reported having financial hardship.


Outreach and recruitment methods used in the Community of Voices trial facilitated enrollment of a large proportion of minority and lower-SES older adults in the final sample. Similar recruitment approaches could serve as a model for recruiting diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic older adults into research.


Community-based participatory research; Health disparities; Music; Older adults; Psychometrics; Recruitment

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