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Bioresour Technol. 2018 Apr;254:290-299. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.111. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) variation in reclaimed water: Insight on biological stability evaluation and control for sustainable water reuse.

Author information

1
Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China; Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control of Shenzhen, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, PR China.
2
Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China.
3
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia.
4
Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control of Shenzhen, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, PR China; Shenzhen Environmental Science and New Energy Technology Engineering Laboratory, Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen 518055, PR China.
5
Research and Development Center, Beijing Drainage Group Co., Ltd, Beijing 100124, PR China.
6
Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China; Shenzhen Environmental Science and New Energy Technology Engineering Laboratory, Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen 518055, PR China. Electronic address: hyhu@tsinghua.edu.cn.

Abstract

This review highlights the importance of conducting biological stability evaluation due to water reuse progression. Specifically, assimilable organic carbon (AOC) has been identified as a practical indicator for microbial occurrence and regrowth which ultimately influence biological stability. Newly modified AOC bioassays aimed for reclaimed water are introduced. Since elevated AOC levels are often detected after tertiary treatment, the review emphasizes that actions can be taken to either limit AOC levels prior to disinfection or conduct post-treatment (e.g. biological filtration) as a supplement to chemical oxidation based approaches (e.g. ozonation and chlorine disinfection). During subsequent distribution and storage, microbial community and possible microbial regrowth caused by complex interactions are discussed. It is suggested that microbial surveillance, AOC threshold values, real-time field applications and surrogate parameters could provide additional information. This review can be used to formulate regulatory plans and strategies, and to aid in deriving relevant control, management and operational guidance.

KEYWORDS:

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC); Biological stability; Microbial regrowth; Reclaimed water; Sustainable water reuse

PMID:
29398290
DOI:
10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.111
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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