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J Mol Biochem. 2017;6:33-40. Epub 2017 Dec 10.

HCV genetics and genotypes dictate future antiviral strategies.

Author information

1
Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University Campus, Athens 15784, Greece.
2
Department of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75, M. Assias Street, Athens 11527, Greece.
3
Clinical Dietitian-Nutritionist, PhD, Harokopio University, Kallithea, Attica, Greece.
4
Sotiria Chest Diseases Hospital,152, Mesogion Av., Athens 11527, Greece.
5
1 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, 154, Mesogion Street, Athens 11527, Greece.
6
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.
7
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, First Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
8
Saudi Diabetes Study Research Group, King Fahd Center for Medical Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
9
Computer Engineering and Informatics Department, School of Engineering, University of Patras, Patras 26500, Greece.
10
Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biotechnology, School of Food, Biotechnology and Development, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855, Athens, Greece.

Abstract

At the end of the 1980s, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was cloned and formally identified as the cause of the majority of non-A and non-B hepatitis cases. Today, around 170 million people worldwide are infected with HCV, making it five times more common than infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several methods exist which mediate the spread of infection. One of the most common and efficient is sharing or re-using injecting equipment; studies have indicated that 80-90% of individuals in some populations of intravenous drug users test positive in serum HCV assays. Contracting HCV from infected blood transfusions was also a major cause of infection before screening tests were introduced in the early 1990s. Other possible, but less common, methods of infection transmission include mother-to-child during pregnancy, sexual contact and nosocomial acquisition (for example between surgical or dialysis patients). It appears that concurrent HIV-1 infection increases the risk of HCV transmission via the mother-to-child or sexual routes.

PMID:
29387656
PMCID:
PMC5788192

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