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Genes Dev. 2018 Jan 1;32(1):70-78. doi: 10.1101/gad.309138.117. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

SAM68 is required for regulation of Pumilio by the NORAD long noncoding RNA.

Author information

Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0RE, United Kingdom.
Contributed equally


The number of known long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) functions is rapidly growing, but how those functions are encoded in their sequence and structure remains poorly understood. NORAD (noncoding RNA activated by DNA damage) is a recently characterized, abundant, and highly conserved lncRNA that is required for proper mitotic divisions in human cells. NORAD acts in the cytoplasm and antagonizes repressors from the Pumilio family that bind at least 17 sites spread through 12 repetitive units in NORAD sequence. Here we study conserved sequences in NORAD repeats, identify additional interacting partners, and characterize the interaction between NORAD and the RNA-binding protein SAM68 (KHDRBS1), which is required for NORAD function in antagonizing Pumilio. These interactions provide a paradigm for how repeated elements in a lncRNA facilitate function.


NORAD; Pumilio; SAM68; long noncoding RNAs; post-transcriptional regulation

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