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Diabetes. 2018 Apr;67(4):704-716. doi: 10.2337/db17-0371. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

PDGF-BB Carried by Endothelial Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.
2
Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular, and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
3
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy mariafelice.brizzi@unito.it giovanni.camussi@unito.it.

Abstract

Endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles (CD31EVs) constitute a new entity for therapeutic/prognostic purposes. The roles of CD31EVs as mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are investigated herein. We demonstrated that, unlike serum-derived extracellular vesicles in individuals without diabetes, those in individuals with diabetes (D CD31EVs) boosted apoptosis resistance of VSMCs cultured in hyperglycemic condition. Biochemical analysis revealed that this effect relies on changes in the balance between antiapoptotic and proapoptotic signals: increase of bcl-2 and decrease of bak/bax. D CD31EV cargo analysis demonstrated that D CD31EVs are enriched in membrane-bound platelet-derived growth factor-BB (mbPDGF-BB). Thus, we postulated that mbPDGF-BB transfer by D CD31EVs could account for VSMC resistance to apoptosis. By depleting CD31EVs of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) or blocking the PDGF receptor β on VSMCs, we demonstrated that mbPDGF-BB contributes to D CD31EV-mediated bak/bax and bcl-2 levels. Moreover, we found that bak expression is under the control of PDGF-BB-mediated microRNA (miR)-296-5p expression. In fact, while PDGF-BB treatment recapitulated D CD31EV-mediated antiapoptotic program and VSMC resistance to apoptosis, PDGF-BB-depleted CD31EVs failed. D CD31EVs also increased VSMC migration and recruitment to neovessels by means of PDGF-BB. Finally, we found that VSMCs, from human atherosclerotic arteries of individuals with T2D, express low bak/bax and high bcl-2 and miR-296-5p levels. This study identifies the mbPDGF-BB in D CD31EVs as a relevant mediator of diabetes-associated VSMC resistance to apoptosis.

PMID:
29386225
DOI:
10.2337/db17-0371
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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