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J Anim Sci. 2018 Feb 15;96(1):194-205. doi: 10.1093/jas/skx031.

Influence of differently processed yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) on feed intake and gut physiology in weaned pigs.

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Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Department of Crop and Animal Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Biochem Zusatzstoffe GmbH, D-Lohne, Germany.
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.


Two feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrolyzed (HY) or non-hydrolyzed (NHY) yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) in isoenergetic and isonitrogeneous diets in the postweaning period. In experiment 1, a total of 550 unsexed pigs (6.5 ± 0.5 kg BW), weaned at 24 ± 2 d of age, were allocated to five treatment groups, receiving either a control diet (CON) or diets with 1%, 3%, and 5% HY (groups HY1, HY3, and HY5, respectively), or a diet with 3% NHY (group NHY3). In experiment 2, a total of 48 male and female pigs (6.2 ± 0.3 kg BW, weaned at d 25) were allocated to three dietary groups (n = 8 replicates with two pigs) receiving a control diet (CON) or diets with 1% NHY or 1% HY. Eight animals were sacrificed 2 wk after weaning for histological investigations in the jejunum and colon, determination of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and ether extract (EE), and electrophysiological measurements in the jejunal tissue after addition of carbachol or l-glutamine using Ussing chambers. In experiment 1, different treatments had no significant effect on pig performance, but diet HY1 tended to increase ADG and G:F in wk 2 after weaning (P < 0.1). In experiment 2, diet HY1 increased feed intake in wk 2 (P < 0.05), whereas NHY yeast had no effect on feed intake. Villus height, villus/crypt ratio in jejunum (P < 0.05), and crypt depth in colon (P < 0.01) were increased in group HY1. Crypt depth in jejunum and small intestinal length were not affected by different treatments. The AID of CP and EE tended to increase in group HY1 (P < 0.1) compared with groups CON and NHY. In the Ussing chamber experiments, no changes in basal electrophysiological parameters were observed, and the reactions of the treatment groups to carbachol and l-glutamine were comparable. ADFI was positively correlated with different parameters of intestinal morphology (villus height, villus/crypt ratio, crypt depth in colon, length of small intestine), AID of CP, EE, and performance. The results suggest that a supplementation of 1% HY based on K. fragilis to pig diets may positively influence ADFI and intestinal morphology in pig in the early postweaning period (d 1 to 14).

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