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Nutrients. 2018 Jan 31;10(2). pii: E167. doi: 10.3390/nu10020167.

The Association between Iron and Vitamin D Status in Female Elite Athletes.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition Physiology and Dietetics, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland. jadwiga.malczewska@insp.waw.pl.
2
Department of Physiology, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland. dariusz.sitkowski@insp.waw.pl.
3
Department of Nutrition Physiology and Dietetics, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland. olga.surala@insp.waw.pl.
4
Department of Nutrition Physiology and Dietetics, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland. joanna.orysiak@insp.waw.pl.
5
Department of Nutrition Physiology and Dietetics, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland. beata.szczepanska@insp.waw.pl.
6
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland. konrad.witek@insp.waw.pl.

Abstract

Vitamin D may influence iron metabolism and erythropoiesis, whereas iron is essential for vitamin D synthesis. We examined whether vitamin D deficiencies (VDD) are associated with reduced iron status and whether progressive iron deficiency (ID) is accompanied by inferior vitamin D status. The study included 219 healthy female (14-34 years old) athletes. VDD was defined as a 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. ID was classified based on ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and blood morphology indices. The percentage of ID subjects was higher (32%) in the VDD group than in the 25(OH)D sufficient group (11%) (χ² = 10.6; p = 0.001). The percentage of VDD subjects was higher (75%) in the ID than in the normal iron status group (48%) (χ² = 15.6; p = 0.001). The odds ratios (ORs) for VDD increased from 1.75 (95% CI 1.02-2.99; p = 0.040) to 4.6 (95% CI 1.81-11.65; p = 0.001) with progressing iron deficiency. ID was dependent on VDD in both VDD groups (25(OH)D < 75 and < 50 nmol/L). The ID group had a lower 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.000). The VDD group had lower ferritin (p = 0.043) and iron (p = 0.004) concentrations and higher values of TIBC (p = 0.016) and sTfR (p = 0.001). The current results confirm the association between vitamin D and iron status in female athletes, although it is difficult to assess exactly which of these nutrients exerts a stronger influence over the other.

KEYWORDS:

25(OH)D; athletes; healthy female; iron status; mutual relationships; vitamin D status

PMID:
29385099
PMCID:
PMC5852743
DOI:
10.3390/nu10020167
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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