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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2018 Jun 1;314(6):R834-R847. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00270.2017. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Chronic inhalation of e-cigarette vapor containing nicotine disrupts airway barrier function and induces systemic inflammation and multiorgan fibrosis in mice.

Author information

1
Pulmonary Critical Care Section, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California.
2
Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California , San Diego, California.
3
MPI Research, Inc., Surgery and Efficacy Department, Mattawan, Michigan.
4
Department of Pharmacology, University of California , San Diego, California.
5
Department of Pathology, University of California , San Diego, California.
6
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California , San Diego, California.
7
Nephrology Section, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California.
8
Division of Physiology, Department of Medicine, University of California , San Diego, California.
9
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Center for Hypertension and Personalized Medicine, University of Toledo , Toledo, Ohio.
10
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Toledo , Toledo, Ohio.

Abstract

Electronic (e)-cigarettes theoretically may be safer than conventional tobacco. However, our prior studies demonstrated direct adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor (EV) on airway cells, including decreased viability and function. We hypothesize that repetitive, chronic inhalation of EV will diminish airway barrier function, leading to inflammatory protein release into circulation, creating a systemic inflammatory state, ultimately leading to distant organ injury and dysfunction. C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice underwent nose only EV exposure daily for 3-6 mo, followed by cardiorenal physiological testing. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed to EV for 15 min daily for 3-5 days before functional testing. Daily inhalation of EV increased circulating proinflammatory and profibrotic proteins in both C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice: the greatest increases observed were in angiopoietin-1 (31-fold) and EGF (25-fold). Proinflammatory responses were recapitulated by daily EV exposures in vitro of human airway epithelium, with EV epithelium secreting higher IL-8 in response to infection (227 vs. 37 pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.05). Chronic EV inhalation in vivo reduced renal filtration by 20% ( P = 0.017). Fibrosis, assessed by Masson's trichrome and Picrosirius red staining, was increased in EV kidneys (1.86-fold, C57BL/6; 3.2-fold, CD-1; P < 0.05), heart (2.75-fold, C57BL/6 mice; P < 0.05), and liver (1.77-fold in CD-1; P < 0.0001). Gene expression changes demonstrated profibrotic pathway activation. EV inhalation altered cardiovascular function, with decreased heart rate ( P < 0.01), and elevated blood pressure ( P = 0.016). These data demonstrate that chronic inhalation of EV may lead to increased inflammation, organ damage, and cardiorenal and hepatic disease.

KEYWORDS:

cardiorenal dysfunction; e-cigarette; electronic cigarette; fibrosis; nicotine; systemic inflammation

PMID:
29384700
PMCID:
PMC6032308
DOI:
10.1152/ajpregu.00270.2017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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