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Plant Cell. 2018 Feb;30(2):285-299. doi: 10.1105/tpc.17.00579. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Defended to the Nines: 25 Years of Resistance Gene Cloning Identifies Nine Mechanisms for R Protein Function.

Author information

1
The Plant Chemetics Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, OX1 3RB Oxford, United Kingdom.
2
The Plant Chemetics Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, OX1 3RB Oxford, United Kingdom renier.vanderhoorn@plants.ox.ac.uk.

Abstract

Plants have many, highly variable resistance (R) gene loci, which provide resistance to a variety of pathogens. The first R gene to be cloned, maize (Zea mays) Hm1, was published over 25 years ago, and since then, many different R genes have been identified and isolated. The encoded proteins have provided clues to the diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 314 cloned R genes. The majority of R genes encode cell surface or intracellular receptors, and we distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance: direct (1) or indirect (2) perception of pathogen-derived molecules on the cell surface by receptor-like proteins and receptor-like kinases; direct (3) or indirect (4) intracellular detection of pathogen-derived molecules by nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors, or detection through integrated domains (5); perception of transcription activator-like effectors through activation of executor genes (6); and active (7), passive (8), or host reprogramming-mediated (9) loss of susceptibility. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of R genes are only understood for a small proportion of known R genes, a clearer understanding of mechanisms is emerging and will be crucial for rational engineering and deployment of novel R genes.

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