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J Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 30;293(13):4752-4766. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000163. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Tyrosine phosphorylation switching of a G protein.

Author information

1
From the Departments of Biology.
2
Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604, Singapore, and.
3
Chemistry.
4
Biochemistry/Biophysics, and.
5
the Department of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332.
6
From the Departments of Biology, alan_jones@unc.edu.
7
Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599.

Abstract

Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are molecular switches relaying extracellular signals sensed by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream targets in the cytoplasm, which effect cellular responses. In the plant heterotrimeric GTPase cycle, GTP hydrolysis, rather than nucleotide exchange, is the rate-limiting reaction and is accelerated by a receptor-like regulator of G signaling (RGS) protein. We hypothesized that posttranslational modification of the Gα subunit in the G protein complex regulates the RGS-dependent GTPase cycle. Our structural analyses identified an invariant phosphorylated tyrosine residue (Tyr166 in the Arabidopsis Gα subunit AtGPA1) located in the intramolecular domain interface where nucleotide binding and hydrolysis occur. We also identified a receptor-like kinase that phosphorylates AtGPA1 in a Tyr166-dependent manner. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations predicted that phosphorylated Tyr166 forms a salt bridge in this interface and potentially affects the RGS protein-accelerated GTPase cycle. Using a Tyr166 phosphomimetic substitution, we found that the cognate RGS protein binds more tightly to the GDP-bound Gα substrate, consequently reducing its ability to accelerate GTPase activity. In conclusion, we propose that phosphorylation of Tyr166 in AtGPA1 changes the binding pattern with AtRGS1 and thereby attenuates the steady-state rate of the GTPase cycle. We coin this newly identified mechanism "substrate phosphoswitching."

KEYWORDS:

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); GTP hydrolysis; GTPase; GTPase-activating protein (GAP); guanine-nucleotide exchange factor; heterotrimeric G protein; phosphotyrosine signaling; protein phosphorylation; regulator of G protein signaling (RGS); substrate phosphoswitching

PMID:
29382719
PMCID:
PMC5880138
[Available on 2019-03-30]
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.RA117.000163

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