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Metabolism. 2018 May;82:125-134. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.01.020. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Balanced high fat diet reduces cardiovascular risk in obese women although changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance differ by race.

Author information

1
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, United States; Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, United States.
2
Oregon Health and Sciences University, Knight Cardiovascular Institute, United States.
3
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Nutrition Obesity Research Center, United States.
4
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, United States; Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, United States. Electronic address: Heidi.j.silver@vanderbilt.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We previously reported that consuming a balanced high fat diet (BHFD) wherein total saturated fat was reduced and total unsaturated fat increased by proportionately balancing the type of fat (1/3 saturated, 1/3 monounsaturated, 1/3 polyunsaturated) led to significant improvements in inflammatory burden, blood pressure, and vascular function in obese premenopausal European American (EA) and African American (AA) women.

OBJECTIVE:

Here we compared changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk between EA and AA women.

METHODS:

Dietary intakes, plasma fatty acids, lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoproteins, HOMA-IR and ASCVD risk was measured in 144 women who consumed BHFD for 16 weeks. Generalized linear modeling was performed while controlling for change in body weight.

RESULTS:

EA women had greater reductions in visceral adipose tissue. Only EA women had significant reductions in fasting insulin levels (↓24.8%) and HOMA-IR (↓29%) scores. In EA women, the most significant improvements occurred in VLDL particle size (↑), apolipoprotein B levels (↑), serum TG (↓), number of plasma LDL particles (↓), and serum LDL-cholesterol (↓). In AA women, significant improvements occurred in HDL particle size (↑), number of large HDL particles (↑), and apolipoprotein AI levels (↑). Consequently, both groups had improved ASCVD risk scores (↓5.5%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Consuming the balanced high fat diet led to significant reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in both groups. However, the pattern of response to BHFD differed with EA women responding more in components of the apolipoprotein B pathway versus AA women responding more in components of the apolipoprotein AI pathway.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00696228.

PMID:
29382504
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2018.01.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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