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Can Urol Assoc J. 2017 Sep;11(9):E344-E349. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.4402.

A contemporary population-based study of testicular sex cord stromal tumours: Presentation, treatment patterns, and predictors of outcome.

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Department of Urology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA; United States.
University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA; United States.
Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA; United States.
Cancer Registry of Greater California, Public Health Institute, Sacramento, CA; United States.
Department of Public Health Sciences, UC Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA; United States.
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, VA Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, CA; United States.



We aimed to characterize demographic distribution, patient outcomes, and prognostic features of testicular sex cord stromal tumours (SCST) using a large statewide database.


Adult male patients diagnosed with SCST between 1988 and 2010 were identified within the California Cancer Registry (CCR). Baseline demographic variables and disease characteristics were reported. Primary outcome measures were cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were employed to identify predictors of survival.


A total of 67 patients with SCST were identified, of which 45 (67%) had Leydig cell and 19 (28%) had Sertoli cell tumours. Median age was 40 years and the majority of patients (84%) presented with localized disease. Following orchiectomy, nine patients (15%) underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), whereas 54 patients (80%) had no further treatment. With a median followup of 75 months, two-year OS and CSS was 91% and 95%, respectively, for those presenting with stage I disease. For those presenting with stage II disease, two-year OS and CSS was 30%. Predictors of worse OS included age >60 (hazard ratio [HR] 5.64; p<0.01) and metastatic disease (HR 8.56; p<0.01). Presentation with metastatic disease was the only variable associated with worse CSS (HR 13.36; p<0.01). Histology was not found to be a significant predictor of either CSS or OS.


We present the largest reported series to date for this rare tumour and provide contemporary epidemiological and treatment data. The primary driver of prognosis in patients with SCST is disease stage, emphasizing the importance of early detection and intervention.

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