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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2018 Aug;31(8):1358-1365. doi: 10.5713/ajas.17.0767. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Effect of natural pre-converted nitrite sources on color development in raw and cooked pork sausage.

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Department of Animal Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Food Processing Research Center, Korean Food Research Institute, Wanju 55365, Korea.
Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 52725, Korea.



The effect of pre-converted nitrites from natural sources (spinach, lettuce, celery, and red beet) on color development in raw and cooked pork sausage was investigated in this study.


The pork sausage was manufactured with six treatments: NC (negative control, nitrite free), PC (positive control, 150 ppm sodium nitrite), FS (3.0% fermented spinach extracts), FL (3.0% fermented lettuce extracts), FC (3.0% fermented celery extracts), and FR (3.0% fermented red beet extracts).


The pH value of the pre-converted nitrites groups was lower than those treated with 150 ppm sodium nitrite (p<0.05). The color values of raw and cooked pork sausage added with pre-converted nitrite showed slightly lower and/or similar lightness, lower redness, and higher yellowness values than PC. Color development (redness values) of cooked samples added with FS was higher than those of the NC and other treatments (FL, FC, and FR). Additionally, treatments with FS and FL were most effective for reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen than the NC.


Effects of natural nitrites from fermented vegetables on shelf stability of raw and cooked pork sausages were investigated. Fermented spinach extract was much more useful for maintaining the color development, but also inhibiting lipid and protein oxidation of cooked pork sausage. Therefore, pre-converted nitrite from spinach as a natural nitrite could be used as another natural nitrite source for making processed meat products.


Celery; Lettuce; Natural Nitrite; Red Beet; Spinach; Pre-converted Nitrite

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