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Endocr Rev. 2018 Jun 1;39(3):274-291. doi: 10.1210/er.2017-00220.

X-Linked Hypophosphatemia and FGF23-Related Hypophosphatemic Diseases: Prospect for New Treatment.

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Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Fujii Memorial Institute of Medical Sciences, Institute of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan.


Phosphate plays essential roles in many biological processes, and the serum phosphate level is tightly controlled. Chronic hypophosphatemia causes impaired mineralization of the bone matrix and results in rickets and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphate metabolism. FGF23 excess induces hypophosphatemia via impaired phosphate reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules and decreased phosphate absorption in the intestines. There are several types of genetic and acquired FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases. Among these diseases, X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), which is caused by inactivating mutations in the phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked (PHEX) gene, is the most prevalent form of genetic FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets. Another clinically relevant form of FGF23-related hypophosphatemic disease is tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with FGF23-producing tumors. A combination of active vitamin D and phosphate salts is the current medical therapy used to treat patients with XLH and inoperative TIO. However, this therapy has certain efficacy- and safety-associated limitations. Several measures to inhibit FGF23 activity have been considered as possible new treatments for FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases. In particular, a humanized monoclonal antibody for FGF23 (burosumab) is a promising treatment in patients with XLH and TIO. This review will focus on the phosphate metabolism and the pathogenesis and treatment of FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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