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Arch Med Sci. 2018 Jan;14(1):115-121. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2016.63262. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with urinary tract infection in children.

Author information

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt.
Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt.



In humans, vitamin D has been shown to play a role in infectious diseases, but its association with acquisition and a complicated course of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels and the risk of first time febrile UTI in children.

Material and methods:

This prospective case-control study included 50 children with first febrile UTI, with no risk factors for UTI, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy siblings as controls. White blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathormone were measured in all studied children. Vitamin D status was determined by measuring plasma 25(OH)D3 level. Deficiency was defined as a plasma 25(OH)D3 level ≤ 25 nmol/l.


Children with UTI had significantly lower mean serum levels of 25(OH)D3 (10.5 ±2.7 nmol/l) than those of controls (25.9 ±5.6 nmol/l) (p < 0.05). Patients with lower UTI had significantly higher serum levels of 25(OH)D3 compared to those with acute pyelonephritis (12.4 ±2.59 vs. 8.2 ±3.2 nmol/l; p < 0.001). Mean serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly lower (p = 0.001) in the female patients compared with males, and this difference was not found within the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that a serum 25(OH)D3 level of ≤ 25 nmol/l is associated with UTI (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.61-2.82; p = 0.04).


Vitamin D deficiency (≤ 25 nmol/l) was an independent risk factor for UTI in children.


25-hydroxyvitamin D; children; urinary tract infection; vitamin D deficiency

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