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Phys Rev Lett. 2018 Jan 12;120(2):022001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.022001.

Nuclear Dependence of the Transverse-Single-Spin Asymmetry for Forward Neutron Production in Polarized p+A Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV.

Aidala C1, Akiba Y2,3, Alfred M4, Andrieux V1, Aoki K5, Apadula N6, Asano H7,2, Ayuso C1, Azmoun B8, Babintsev V9, Bagoly A10, Bandara NS11, Barish KN12, Bathe S13,3, Bazilevsky A8, Beaumier M12, Belmont R14, Berdnikov A15, Berdnikov Y15, Blau DS16,17, Boer M18, Bok JS19, Brooks ML18, Bryslawskyj J13,12, Bumazhnov V9, Butler C20, Campbell S21, Canoa Roman V22, Cervantes R22, Chi CY21, Chiu M8, Choi IJ23, Choi JB24, Citron Z25, Connors M20,3, Cronin N22, Csanád M10, Csörgő T26,27, Danley TW28, Daugherity MS29, David G8,22, DeBlasio K30, Dehmelt K22, Denisov A9, Deshpande A3,22, Desmond EJ8, Dion A22, Dixit D22, Do JH31, Drees A22, Drees KA32, Dumancic M25, Durham JM18, Durum A9, Elder T20, Enokizono A2,33, En'yo H2, Esumi S34, Fadem B35, Fan W22, Feege N22, Fields DE30, Finger M36, Finger M36, Fokin SL16, Frantz JE28, Franz A8, Frawley AD37, Fukuda Y34, Gal C22, Gallus P38, Garg P39,22, Ge H22, Giordano F23, Goto Y2,3, Grau N40, Greene SV41, Grosse Perdekamp M23, Gunji T42, Guragain H20, Hachiya T2,3, Haggerty JS8, Hahn KI43, Hamagaki H42, Hamilton HF29, Han SY43, Hanks J22, Hasegawa S44, Haseler TOS20, He X20, Hemmick TK22, Hill JC6, Hill K14, Hollis RS12, Homma K45, Hong B46, Hoshino T45, Hotvedt N6, Huang J8, Huang S41, Imai K44, Imrek J47, Inaba M34, Iordanova A12, Isenhower D29, Ito Y48, Ivanishchev D49, Jacak BV22, Jezghani M20, Ji Z22, Jiang X18, Johnson BM8,20, Jorjadze V22, Jouan D50, Jumper DS23, Kang JH31, Kapukchyan D12, Karthas S22, Kawall D11, Kazantsev AV16, Khachatryan V22, Khanzadeev A49, Kim C12,46, Kim DJ51, Kim EJ24, Kim M52, Kim MH46, Kincses D10, Kistenev E8, Klatsky J37, Kline P22, Koblesky T14, Kotov D49,15, Kudo S34, Kurita K33, Kwon Y31, Lajoie JG6, Lallow EO35, Lebedev A6, Lee S31, Leitch MJ18, Leung YH22, Lewis NA1, Li X18, Lim SH18,31, Liu LD53, Liu MX18, Loggins VR23, Lökös S10,26, Lovasz K47, Lynch D8, Majoros T47, Makdisi YI32, Makek M54, Malaev M49, Manko VI16, Mannel E8, Masuda H33, McCumber M18, McGaughey PL18, McGlinchey D14,18, McKinney C23, Mendoza M12, Metzger WJ26, Mignerey AC55, Mihalik DE22, Milov A25, Mishra DK56, Mitchell JT8, Mitsuka G3, Miyasaka S2,57, Mizuno S2,34, Montuenga P23, Moon T31, Morrison DP8, Morrow SIM41, Murakami T7,2, Murata J2,33, Nagai K57, Nagashima K45, Nagashima T33, Nagle JL14, Nagy MI10, Nakagawa I2,3, Nakagomi H2,34, Nakano K2,57, Nattrass C58, Niida T34, Nouicer R8,3, Novák T26,27, Novitzky N22, Novotny R38, Nyanin AS16, O'Brien E8, Ogilvie CA6, Orjuela Koop JD14, Osborn JD1, Oskarsson A59, Ottino GJ30, Ozawa K5,34, Pantuev V60, Papavassiliou V19, Park JS52, Park S2,52,22, Pate SF19, Patel M6, Peng W41, Perepelitsa DV8,14, Perera GDN19, Peressounko DY16, PerezLara CE22, Perry J6, Petti R8, Phipps M8,23, Pinkenburg C8, Pisani RP8, Pun A28, Purschke ML8, Radzevich PV15, Read KF61,58, Reynolds D62, Riabov V17,49, Riabov Y49,15, Richford D13, Rinn T6, Rolnick SD12, Rosati M6, Rowan Z13, Runchey J6, Safonov AS15, Sakaguchi T8, Sako H44, Samsonov V17,49, Sarsour M20, Sato K34, Sato S44, Schaefer B41, Schmoll BK58, Sedgwick K12, Seidl R2,3, Sen A6,58, Seto R12, Sexton A55, Sharma D22, Shein I9, Shibata TA2,57, Shigaki K45, Shimomura M6,48, Shioya T34, Shukla P56, Sickles A23, Silva CL18, Silvermyr D59, Singh BK39, Singh CP39, Singh V39, Skoby MJ1, Slunečka M36, Smith KL37, Snowball M18, Soltz RA63, Sondheim WE18, Sorensen SP58, Sourikova IV8, Stankus PW61, Stoll SP8, Sugitate T45, Sukhanov A8, Sumita T2, Sun J22, Syed S20, Sziklai J27, Takeda A48, Tanida K44,3,52, Tannenbaum MJ8, Tarafdar S41,25, Taranenko A17,62, Tarnai G47, Tieulent R20,64, Timilsina A6, Todoroki T34, Tomášek M38, Towell CL29, Towell RS29, Tserruya I25, Ueda Y45, Ujvari B47, van Hecke HW18, Vazquez-Carson S14, Velkovska J41, Virius M38, Vrba V38,65, Vukman N54, Wang XR19,3, Wang Z13, Watanabe Y2,3, Watanabe YS42, Wong CP20, Woody CL8, Xu C19, Xu Q41, Xue L20, Yalcin S22, Yamaguchi YL3,22, Yamamoto H34, Yanovich A9, Yin P14, Yoo JH46, Yoon I52, Yu H19,53, Yushmanov IE16, Zajc WA21, Zelenski A32, Zharko S15, Zou L12; PHENIX Collaboration.

Author information

1
Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040, USA.
2
RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
3
RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000, USA.
4
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA.
5
KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan.
6
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.
7
Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
8
Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000, USA.
9
IHEP Protvino, State Research Center of Russian Federation, Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino 142281, Russia.
10
ELTE, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Hungary.
11
Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9337, USA.
12
University of California-Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, USA.
13
Baruch College, City University of New York, New York, New York 10010, USA.
14
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.
15
Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 Russia.
16
National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute," Moscow 123098 Russia.
17
National Research Nuclear University, MEPhI, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow 115409, Russia.
18
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA.
19
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003, USA.
20
Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA.
21
Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA and Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, New York 10533, USA.
22
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, SUNY, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800, USA.
23
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
24
Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea.
25
Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100, Israel.
26
Eszterházy Károly University, Károly Róbert Campus, H-3200 Gyöngyös, Mátrai út 36, Hungary.
27
Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Wigner RCP, RMKI) H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49, Budapest, Hungary.
28
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA.
29
Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas 79699, USA.
30
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA.
31
Yonsei University, IPAP, Seoul 120-749, Korea.
32
Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000, USA.
33
Physics Department, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan.
34
Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan.
35
Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pennsylvania 18104-5586, USA.
36
Charles University, Ovocný trh 5, Praha 1, 116 36, Prague, Czech Republic.
37
Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA.
38
Czech Technical University, Zikova 4, 166 36 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
39
Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.
40
Department of Physics, Augustana University, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57197, USA.
41
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA.
42
Center for Nuclear Study, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
43
Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.
44
Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195, Japan.
45
Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan.
46
Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea.
47
Debrecen University, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, Hungary.
48
Nara Women's University, Kita-uoya Nishi-machi Nara 630-8506, Japan.
49
PNPI, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300, Russia.
50
IPN-Orsay, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, BP1, F-91406 Orsay, France.
51
Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.
52
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
53
Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.
54
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička c. 32 HR-10002 Zagreb, Croatia.
55
University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.
56
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay 400 085, India.
57
Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oh-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan.
58
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA.
59
Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
60
Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow 117312, Russia.
61
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.
62
Chemistry Department, Stony Brook University, SUNY, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3400, USA.
63
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.
64
IPNL, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ Lyon, Universit Lyon 1, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.
65
Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic.

Abstract

During 2015, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of transversely polarized protons with Au and Al nuclei for the first time, enabling the exploration of transverse-single-spin asymmetries with heavy nuclei. Large single-spin asymmetries in very forward neutron production have been previously observed in transversely polarized p+p collisions at RHIC, and the existing theoretical framework that was successful in describing the single-spin asymmetry in p+p collisions predicts only a moderate atomic-mass-number (A) dependence. In contrast, the asymmetries observed at RHIC in p+A collisions showed a surprisingly strong A dependence in inclusive forward neutron production. The observed asymmetry in p+Al collisions is much smaller, while the asymmetry in p+Au collisions is a factor of 3 larger in absolute value and of opposite sign. The interplay of different neutron production mechanisms is discussed as a possible explanation of the observed A dependence.

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