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Adv Sci (Weinh). 2017 Nov 15;5(1):1700322. doi: 10.1002/advs.201700322. eCollection 2018 Jan.

Advanced Energy Storage Devices: Basic Principles, Analytical Methods, and Rational Materials Design.

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Division of Physics and Applied Physics School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Nanyang Technological University Singapore 637371 Singapore.
College of Aerospace Engineering Chongqing University Chongqing 400044 P. R. China.
Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education School of Materials Sciences and Engineering East China University of Science and Technology 130 Meilong Road Shanghai 200237 P. R. China.
Heterogeneous Catalysis Institute of Chemical Engineering and Sciences Astar, 1 Pesek Road Jurong Island 627833 Singapore.
Energy Research Institute @NTU (ERI@N) Nanyang Technological University Singapore 639798 Singapore.


Tremendous efforts have been dedicated into the development of high-performance energy storage devices with nanoscale design and hybrid approaches. The boundary between the electrochemical capacitors and batteries becomes less distinctive. The same material may display capacitive or battery-like behavior depending on the electrode design and the charge storage guest ions. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms and the electrochemical processes occurring upon charge storage may be confusing for researchers who are new to the field as well as some of the chemists and material scientists already in the field. This review provides fundamentals of the similarities and differences between electrochemical capacitors and batteries from kinetic and material point of view. Basic techniques and analysis methods to distinguish the capacitive and battery-like behavior are discussed. Furthermore, guidelines for material selection, the state-of-the-art materials, and the electrode design rules to advanced electrode are proposed.


advanced energy storage devices; analytical methods; pseudocapacitance; rational materials design

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