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Science. 2018 Jan 26;359(6374):456-459. doi: 10.1126/science.aap8369.

The earliest modern humans outside Africa.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Post Office Box 39040, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel. anatom2@tauex.tau.ac.il.
2
The Dan David Center for Human Evolution and Biohistory Research and The Shmunis Family Anthropology Institute, The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Tel Aviv University, Post Office Box 39040, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
3
Department of Anthropology and Core Facility for Micro-Computed Tomography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
4
Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY 13902-6000, USA.
5
Centro UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, Avda. Monforte de Lemos, 5, 28029, Madrid, Spain.
6
Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192, USA.
7
Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution (ARCHE), Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD 4111, Australia.
8
National Research Center on Human Evolution (CENIEH), Paseo de la Sierra de Atapuerca 3, 09002, Burgos, Spain.
9
Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.
10
Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhe Israel Street, Jerusalem 9550161, Israel.
11
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, avenue de la terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France.
12
Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux, UMR 5060 CNRS - Université de Bordeaux Montaigne, Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l'Archéologie (CRP2A), Maison de l'archéologie, 33607 PESSAC Cedex, France.
13
Departamento de Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
14
Department of Anthropology, University College London, 14 Taviton Street, London, WC1H 0BW, UK.
15
Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
16
UMR5189 PACEA Université de Bordeaux, CNRS MCC, France.
17
Department of Oral biology and Orthodontics, the Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6997801 Israel.
18
Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Post Office Box 39040, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
19
Departamento de Historia, Geografia y Comunicación, Universidad de Burgos, Facultad de Humanidades y Comunicación, 09001, Burgos, Spain.
20
Facultade de Humanidades, Universidad Isabel I, Spain.
21
Área de Prehistoria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avinguda Catalunya 35, 43002 Tarragona, Spain.
22
Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES), Marcel·lí Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.
23
Institute of Earth Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel.
24
Department of Maritime Civilizations, Recanati Institute of Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa, Mount Carmel 3498838, Israel.
25
Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.
26
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
27
Department of Paleoanthropology, Institute of Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Science, Str. Xizhimenwai no. 144, 100044 Beijing, China.
28
Department of Radiology, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, 3436212 Israel.
29
Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Mount Carmel 3498838, Israel.
30
Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 9190501, Israel.

Abstract

To date, the earliest modern human fossils found outside of Africa are dated to around 90,000 to 120,000 years ago at the Levantine sites of Skhul and Qafzeh. A maxilla and associated dentition recently discovered at Misliya Cave, Israel, was dated to 177,000 to 194,000 years ago, suggesting that members of the Homo sapiens clade left Africa earlier than previously thought. This finding changes our view on modern human dispersal and is consistent with recent genetic studies, which have posited the possibility of an earlier dispersal of Homo sapiens around 220,000 years ago. The Misliya maxilla is associated with full-fledged Levallois technology in the Levant, suggesting that the emergence of this technology is linked to the appearance of Homo sapiens in the region, as has been documented in Africa.

PMID:
29371468
DOI:
10.1126/science.aap8369
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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