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Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2018 Mar;14(3):259-263. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2017.12.013. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery estimation of metabolic and bariatric procedures performed in the United States in 2016.

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Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee. Electronic address:
Bon Secours General Surgery at St Mary's Hospital, Richmond, Virginia.
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington.
Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, Florida.
Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California.



Bariatric surgery, despite being the most successful long-lasting treatment for morbid obesity, remains underused as only approximately 1% of all patients who qualify for surgery actually undergo surgery. To determine if patients in need are receiving appropriate therapy, the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery created a Numbers Taskforce to specify annual rate of use for obesity treatment interventions.


The objective of this study was to determine metabolic and bariatric procedure trends since 2011 and to provide the best estimate of the number of procedures performed in the United States in 2016.


United States.


We reviewed data from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, and Nationwide Inpatient Sample. In addition, data from industry and outpatient centers were used to estimate outpatient center activity. Data from 2016 were compared with the previous 5 years of data.


Compared with 2015, the total number of metabolic and bariatric procedures performed in 2016 increased from approximately 196,000 to 216,000. The sleeve gastrectomy trend is increasing, and it continues to be the most common procedure. The gastric bypass and gastric band trends continued to decrease as seen in previous years. The percentage of revision procedures and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch procedures increased slightly. Finally, intragastric balloons placement emerged as a significant contributor to the cumulative total number of procedures performed.


There is increasing use of metabolic and bariatric procedures performed in the United States from 2011 to 2016, with a nearly 10% increase noted from 2015 to 2016.


2016; Bariatric surgery; Bariatric surgery procedure trends; Estimated numbers; Numbers task force; Procedure trends

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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