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Skin Res Technol. 2018 May;24(2):318-325. doi: 10.1111/srt.12433. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

In vivo skin reactions from pulsed-type, bipolar, alternating current radiofrequency treatment using invasive noninsulated electrodes.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Center, International St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
2
Kangskin Dermatology Clinic, Seoul, Korea.
3
Department of Anatomy, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea.
4
Department of Dermatology, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, China.
5
Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bipolar, alternating current radiofrequency (RF) conduction using invasive noninsulated electrodes consecutively generates independent tissue coagulation around each electrode and then, the converged coagulation columns.

METHODS:

Two pulsed-type RF models at the on-time pulse width/pulse pack of 30 and 40 milliseconds were designed to amplify the early stage of RF-induced tissue reaction using hairless mouse skin in vivo. Then, structural and ultrastructural changes were evaluated in hairless mouse skin samples at baseline and immediately 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days after treatment.

RESULTS:

Immediately after pulsed-RF treatment, a few chrysanthemum-like zones of electrothermal coagulation and hypereosinophilic collagen fibers were found in the dermis and dermo-subcutaneous fat junction. Histochemical staining for periodic acid-Schiff and immunohistochemical staining for type IV collagen revealed marked thickening of basement membranes. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that pulsed-RF treatment resulted in higher electron-dense and remarkably thicker lamina densa, as well as increases in anchoring fibrils, compared with untreated control specimens. Furthermore, CD31-positive blood vessels were smaller in size with a slit-like luminal appearance, without excessive damage to endothelial cells.

CONCLUSION:

Our data indicated that pulse-type, bipolar RF energy induces structural and ultrastructural changes in basement membranes and vascular components in hairless mouse skin.

KEYWORDS:

alternating current; basement membrane; bipolar; blood vessel; invasive; microneedle; pulsed-type radiofrequency

PMID:
29368439
DOI:
10.1111/srt.12433
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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