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JCI Insight. 2018 Jan 25;3(2). pii: 96660. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.96660. eCollection 2018 Jan 25.

IKKβ is a β-catenin kinase that regulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

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Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, and.
Department of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA.


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can give rise to both adipocytes and osteoblasts, but the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC fate determination remain poorly understood. IκB kinase β (IKKβ), a central coordinator of inflammation and immune responses through activation of NF-κB, has been implicated as a critical molecular link between obesity and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that IKKβ can reciprocally regulate adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation of murine and human MSCs through an NF-κB-independent mechanism. IKKβ is a β-catenin kinase that phosphorylates the conserved degron motif of β-catenin to prime it for β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation, thereby increasing adipogenesis and inhibiting osteogenesis in MSCs. Animal studies demonstrated that deficiency of IKKβ in BM mesenchymal stromal cells increased bone mass and decreased BM adipocyte formation in adult mice. In humans, IKKβ expression in adipose tissue was also positively associated with increased adiposity and elevated β-catenin phosphorylation. These findings suggest IKKβ as a key molecular switch that regulates MSC fate, and they provide potentially novel mechanistic insights into the understanding of the cross-regulation between the evolutionarily conserved IKKβ and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. The IKKβ-Wnt axis we uncovered may also have important implications for development, homeostasis, and disease pathogenesis.


Adipose tissue; Adult stem cells; Cell Biology; NF-kappaB; Stem cells

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